Net Realizable Value Formula How to Calculate NRV?

net realizable value

On the contrary, net realizable value is the amount that can be collected in cash. So, market value is more relevant when want to purchase and realizable value is more important when willing to sell. An item-A was purchased two years back and at the cost of $300 per unit. However, today this item-A can be sold at $320 by incurring a marketing expense of $50. International Accounting Standard – IAS2 requires inventory to be valued at a lower of cost and NRV. Cost is the amount incurred in purchasing the inventory during normal business activity. In simple words, it’s an invoice amount that you pay to purchase inventory.

net realizable value

Knowledgeable decision makers understand that some degree of uncertainty exists with all such balances. However, a very specific figure does appear on Dell’s balance sheet. By including this amount, company officials are asserting that they have obtained sufficient evidence to provide reasonable assurance that the amount collected will not be a materially different figure2. —the amount of cash the company estimates will be collected over time from these accounts.

Accounts Receivable

The market value of this inventory i2 is $200, and the preparation cost to sell this inventory i2 is $30. The external auditors perform NRV testing for the valuation of the inventory balance. In fact, it’s required by IAS-2 to ensure inventory is recorded at a lower of cost and NRV.

  • We do this only if the item has “no sales” to avoid double NRV adjustments.
  • Harold Averkamp has worked as a university accounting instructor, accountant, and consultant for more than 25 years.
  • The difference between reported and actual figures is most likely to be inconsequential.
  • NRV is a common method used to evaluate an asset’s value for inventory accounting.

Though NRV may be the most dramatically reduced valuation for inventory, the aim is to reduce the carrying value of goods to not overstate the income statement. Net realizable value accounts for the value of an asset in terms of the amount it would receive upon sale, minus selling costs. This requires obtaining the current selling price of similar product or inventory. This also involves some judgments as the current selling price from one company to another is difference. This analysis is part of almost any audit, as inventory and accounts receivable overstatement is a more significant risk.


In the above case, the cost of item-A is $300 and NRV can be computed as follows. Inventories, in general, cannot be revalued upward once written down. Let’s take an example to understand the calculation of net realizable value formula in a better manner. Harold Averkamp has worked as a university accounting instructor, accountant, and consultant for more than 25 years. He is the sole author of all the materials on Volkswagen disclosed ownership of €43.7 billion of inventory, a very slight decline from the €43.8 billion of inventory carried at the end of December 2020.

net realizable value

ParticularsDebitCreditProfit and loss $30Inventory for item-A$30The debit impact of the transaction is the recording of impairment as realizable value has declined. On the contrary, the credit impact of the transaction is the removal of the inventory balance.

Example of Calculating NRV

Every business has to keep a close on its inventory and periodically access its value. The reason for that is there are several negative impacts like damage of inventory, obsolescence, spoilage etc. which can affect the inventory value in a negative way. So it is better for a business to write off those assets once for all rather than carrying those assets which can increase the losses in the future. This concept is also important tofinancial accountingin reporting inventory and accounts receivable on thebalance sheet. Only assets that can be readily sold can be reported as inventory on a company’s balance sheet. If the inventory is obsolete or damaged, it will probably not sell and should be reported as a different asset. Going back to our car example, if the car was damaged and the dealership decided that it was still sellable, the dealership would report the car as inventory on its balance sheet at the NRV.

As technology evolves and production capabilities expand, unsold inventory items may quickly lose their luster and become obsolete. This is true for even recently manufactured products; companies not in tune with market conditions may be producing goods that are already outdated. The lower of cost or market method lets companies record losses by writing down the value of the affected inventory items. You may not be able to price your product until after production ends.

As we now have both the average cost and average sales price, we can compare those to identify potential NRV issues. As we might have no sales for some of our inventory items, we include another check and return “no sales” where the sold quantity is zero. For items we sold, where the Average Price is less than the Average Cost, we identify an NRV issue. On a company’s balance sheet, inventory is typically listed “at cost,” meaning the value reported is whatever it cost the company to acquire the inventory. If the net realizable value of an item is lower than its cost, however, then the item’s balance-sheet value must be “written down” to NRV.

How is net realizable value calculated?

It is found by determining the expected selling price of an asset and all the costs associated with the eventual sale of the asset, and then calculating the difference between these two. To put it in formulaic terms, NRV = Expected selling price – Total production and selling costs.

The company states that as part of its calculation of inventory, the company wrote-down $592 million. This means the company’s net realized value of its inventory was less than its cost. Shell also indicated a similar write-down to NRV occurred in 2020. If the replacement cost had been $45, we would write the inventory down to $45.

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